The following information are excerpts taken from completed research endeavors by members of the Tai Sophia Academic Community.
The Diuretic Effect in Human Subjects of an Extract of Taraxacum officinale Folium of a single day.
Clare BA, Conroy RS, Spelman K.
Department of Herbal Medicine, Tai Sophia Institute, Laurel, MD 20723, USA.
BACKGROUND: Taraxacum officinale (L.) Weber (Asteraceae) has been extensively employed as a diuretic in traditional folk medicine and in modern phytotherapy in Europe, Asia, and the Americas without prior clinical trial substantiation. OBJECTIVES: In this pilot study, a high-quality fresh leaf hydroethanolic extract of the medicinal plant T. officinale (dandelion) was ingested by volunteers to investigate whether an increased urinary frequency and volume would result. DESIGN: Volume of urinary output and fluid intake were recorded by subjects. Baseline values for urinary frequency and excretion ratio (urination volume:fluid intake) were established 2 days prior to dandelion dosing (8 mL TID) and monitored throughout a 1-day dosing period and 24 hours postdosing. RESULTS: For the entire population (n = 17) there was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in the frequency of urination in the 5-hour period after the first dose. There was also a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the excretion ratio in the 5-hour period after the second dose of extract. The third dose failed to change any of the measured parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these first human data, T. officinale ethanolic extract shows promise as a diuretic in humans. Further studies are needed to establish the value of this herb for induction of diuresis in human subjects..
A critical evaluation of drug interactions with Echinacea spp.
Freeman C, Spelman K.
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
Accurate information concerning drug-herb interactions is vital for both healthcare providers and patients. Unfortunately, many of the reviews on drug-herb interactions contain overstated or inaccurate information. To provide accurate information on drug-herb interactions healthcare providers must account for product verification, dosage, medicinal plant species, and plant part used. This critical review assessed the occurrence of drug interactions with one of the top selling botanical remedies, echinacea including Echinacea angustifolia, E. pallida, and E. purpurea. Only eight papers containing primary data relating to drug interactions were identified. Herbal remedies made from E. purpurea appear to have a low potential to generate cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) drug-herb interactions including CYP 450 1A2 (CYP1A2) and CYP 450 3A4 (CYP3A4). Currently there are no verifiable reports of drug-herb interactions with any echinacea product. However, further pharmacokinetic testing is necessary before conclusive statements can be made about echinacea drug-herb interactions. Given our findings, the estimated risk of taking echinacea products (1 in 100,000), the number of echinacea doses consumed yearly (> 10 million), the number of adverse events (< 100) and that the majority of use is short term, E. purpurea products (roots and/or aerial parts) do not appear to be a risk to consumers.